Is Morphine Still Used?
Last Updated Dec 2, 2021
Yes, morphine is still used today.
Morphine is a prescription medication used to help conquer pain. While newer painkillers like OxyContin, Vicodin, and fentanyl dominate news cycles, plenty of people can and do take morphine to conquer pain. And many people look for morphine to abuse it.
What Is Morphine Used For?
Years ago, when doctors talked about prescription painkillers, they meant morphine. There was no other medication quite like it for treating pain.
Now, that’s no longer true. Plenty of prescription painkillers are available, but even so, morphine is still available.
Extended-release morphine products are incredibly valuable for people struggling with cancer pain. Researchers say more than half of people with cancer, and about 40 percent of those who survived a battle with cancer, have pain.
For people like this, extended-release morphine allows them to put discomfort behind so they can focus on living a happy and fulfilling life. They can morphine patches, pills, or fluids placed directly in their IV lines.
In the 1990s, morphine was responsible for what researchers call the “first wave” of opioid overdoses. People stole morphine products from pharmacies and used those drugs to get high.
Now, most people with addiction focus on synthetic opioids, like fentanyl. But even so, some people with addictions look for morphine. And many will use morphine if they can get it.
Morphine’s Side Effects
All prescription painkillers come with side effects. Those caused by morphine are similar to those caused by fentanyl and Vicodin.
Long-acting formulations of morphine begin to work in about two hours, and they can take up to 30 hours to peak. This means some people will feel morphine’s side effects for a very long time. People accustomed to short-acting drugs like Vicodin might be surprised at how long they feel changed.
Short-term side effects include the following:
- Slow breathing rates
These problems can quickly become life-threatening. A person breathing slowly while vomiting can aspirate that vomit, choke, and die. Very slow breathing rates can also deprive the brain of oxygen, leading to death.
Understand Morphine’s Risks
If a person who abuses morphine doesn’t get harmed by short-term side effects, are they safe from larger problems? Not necessarily. Morphine is a very powerful drug, and its dangers can be hard to ignore.
Morphine Addiction Is Common
All opioids, including morphine, bind to receptors in the brain and can cause intense euphoria. These drugs also trigger the brain’s reward system, so people remember the change and feel compelled to make it happen again.
Euphoria plus a feeling of reward can make some people psychologically dependent on morphine. With repeated use, their bodies can get hooked too. In time, people using morphine may find it difficult to stop without help.
Opioid Constipation Is Serious
Morphine slows bowel activity, and most people who use these drugs feel constipated. For example, about 12 percent of people who use opioids for cancer pain have constipation.
People who abuse drugs may not be aware of morphine’s impact on the bowels, and they may allow constipation to go untreated for long periods. Bowel obstructions can result, and some people need lifesaving surgery.
Opioid Overdose Can Kill You
In 2020, almost 92,000 people in the United States died from drug overdoses. Prescription painkillers are at the heart of this drug overdose epidemic.
Long-lasting morphine formulations are especially dangerous. Some people crush and snort the pills, hoping to get all of the power inside in one dose. They can quickly overwhelm the body’s core system and slip into comas that are hard to reverse.
People in recovery are also at risk. If you stop taking morphine, your brain begins to heal. If you return to the same big doses you took before you recovered, you will overwhelm your body and overdose.
Drug Abuse Can Harm Patients In Need
Everyone is worried about how many people die due to drug overdoses. Research suggests that some doctors respond by giving fewer drugs to people who need them.
Between 2007 and 2017, doctors filled 50 percent fewer long-acting opioid prescriptions per patient. These drugs are the most effective options for people dying of cancer. But fears about diversion keep doctors from using them.
What Can Doctors Use Instead?
Some patients struggling with chronic pain from end-stage cancer need long-lasting formulations of morphine. But other patients may benefit from different types of drugs.
Some doctors use gabapentin instead of drugs like morphine. Others use medications such as these:
Doctors can also use non-drug treatments like physical therapy, occupational therapy, massage, and orthotics to help their patients.
For people with cancer pain who aren’t expected to recover, any drug that lessens discomfort is appropriate. These patients shouldn’t worry about whether or not they will develop an addiction. They should be comfortable during their final days.
But anyone abusing morphine should stop. This drug is too dangerous, and continued abuse can lead to a shortened life span.
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Opioid Facts. (February 2022). The United States Department of Justice.
Optimal Treatment of Opioid-Induced Constipation in Daily Clinical Practice: An Observational Study. (March 2019). BMC Palliative Care.
Overdose Death Rates. (January 2022). National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Study Finds Signs of Worsening Pain Management for Patients with Terminal Cancer. (July 2021). Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
Are Cancer Patients Getting the Opioids They Need to Control Pain? (September 2020). National Cancer Institute.
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